incendiary meaning: 1. designed to cause fires: 2. likely to cause violence or strong feelings of anger: 3. designed…. The 4 lb (1.8 kg) incendiary bomb, developed by ICI, was the standard light incendiary bomb used by RAF Bomber Command in very large numbers, declining slightly in 1944 to 35.8 million bombs produced (the decline being due to more bombs arriving from the United States). Signatory states are bound by Protocol III of the UN Convention on Conventional Weapons which governs the use of incendiary weapons: Protocol III states though that incendiary weapons do not include: although the 4th Geneva Convention, Part 3, Article 1, Section 28 states, "ROYAL AIR FORCE HISTORICAL SOCIETY JOURNAL 45 – RFC BOMBS & BOMBING 1912–1918 (pp. All weapons are strictly prohibited from the stadium, from small knives to incendiary devices. The Science of Incendiary Devices Firebombs inflict their devastating effects by combining the effects of powerful explosives and highly flammable materials. Many incendiary weapons developed and deployed during World War II were in the form of bombs and shells whose main incendiary component is white phosphorus (WP), and can be used in an offensive anti-personnel role against enemy troop concentrations, but WP is also used for signalling, smoke screens, and target-marking purposes. A bomb or combination of chemicals used to start a fire. The principal's incendiary remarks about their clothes were not appropriate for the students to hear. Tending to arouse strong emotion or conflict; inflammatory. A person who willfully stirs up strife, riot, rebellion, etc. ", "Books in brief. Different methods of delivery, e.g. Sulfur- and oil-soaked materials were sometimes ignited and thrown at the enemy, or attached to spears, arrow and bolts and fired by hand or machine. The U.S. Army and Marines used WP extensively in World War II and Korea for all three purposes, frequently using WP shells in large 4.2-inch chemical mortars. Racks holding 36 of these bombs were developed, four of which could, in turn, be fitted to an electrically triggered dispenser so that a single He 111 bomber could carry 1,152 incendiary bombs, or more usually a mixed load. An explosive charge would then ignite the incendiary material, often starting a raging fire. Fuel-air explosive; 5. Napalm: An American Biography Robert M. Neer Harvard University Press 352 pp", "Liquid Fire – How Napalm Was Used In The Vietnam War", Protocol III to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects, United States Strategic Bombing Survey (Pacific War) 1946, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Incendiary_device&oldid=984091751, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2012, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, prohibits the use of incendiary weapons against civilians (effectively a reaffirmation of the general prohibition on attacks against civilians in, prohibits the use of air-delivered incendiary weapons against. It takes very high temperatures to ignite, but when alight, it can burn through solid steel. Incendiary definition, used or adapted for setting property on fire: incendiary bombs. A person who intentionally starts a fire with the purpose of causing damage or injury. "Ah, he looks very much like an incendiary," remarked the officer. 12–13)", "SUPERFLAMER Dropped by Chute Throws Fire 15 Feet. Incendiary – A fire intentionally ignited under circumstances where the person knows the fire should not be ignited. 2. In both World War II and Korea, WP was found particularly useful in overcoming enemy human wave attacks. ‘Such incendiary language, bordering on incitement to mutiny, has become almost routine in Republican quarters.’ ‘Prowling the stage like a drunken panther, his tales of emotional torture may have grown tiresome, but his incendiary political material proved a rip-roaring success.’ Munitions which may have incidental incendiary effects, such as illuminates. Penal Code 18720 PC is the California law that makes it a felony to possess materials necessary to make a destructive device. Politics is an incendiary topic; it tends to cause fights to break out. [7] Probably the most famous incendiary attacks are the bombing of Dresden and the bombing of Tokyo on 10 March 1945. Chemical Incendiaries. Incendiary mixtures, such as the petroleum-based Greek fire, were launched by throwing machines or administered through a siphon. Reportedly about 388,000 tons of U.S. napalm bombs were dropped in the region between 1963 and 1973, compared to 32,357 tons used over three years in the Korean War, and 16,500 tons dropped on Japan in 1945.[16][17]. Torches or flashlights are sometimes used to ignite IIDs. On 8 September 1915, Zeppelin L-13 dropped a large number of firebombs, but even then the results were poor and they were generally ineffective in terms of the damage inflicted. The military used incendiaries to destroy the building. The small number of German bombs, also known as firebombs, were finned containers filled with kerosene and oil and wrapped with tar-covered rope. Sixty-seven Japanese cities lost significant areas to incendiary attacks. WP was widely credited by many Allied soldiers for breaking up numerous German infantry attacks and creating havoc among enemy troop concentrations during the latter part of World War II. Flamethrower; 4. Sample 1 Based on 1 documents The fire would burn at extreme temperatures that could destroy most buildings made of wood or other combustible materials (buildings constructed of stone tend to resist incendiary destruction unless they are first blown open by high explosives). An incendiary device is any firebomb, and any device designed or specially adapted to cause physical harm to persons or property by means of fire, and consisting of an incendiary substance or agency and a means to ignite it. The American official who took this statement declined to publicize it. Having to do with the willful destruction of property by fire. at 5. Something capable of causing fire, particularly a weapon. A person who willfully destroys property by fire. It was the weapon of choice for the British "dehousing" plan. In World War II, such devices were employed in incendiary grenades to burn through heavy armour plate, or as a quick welding mechanism to destroy artillery and other complex machined weapons. Incendiary bombs were used extensively in World War II as an effective bombing weapon, often in a conjunction with high-explosive bombs. Examples of incendiary devices include: 1. The soldiers were trained to deal with incendiary attacks. [14], During the Vietnam War, the U.S. Air Force developed the CBU-55, a cluster bomb incendiary fuelled by propane, a weapon that was used only once in warfare. There was also a high explosive version and delayed high explosive versions (2–4 minutes) which were designed to kill rescuers and firefighters. A variety of pyrophoric materials can also be used: selected organometallic compounds, most often triethylaluminium, trimethylaluminium, and some other alkyl and aryl derivatives of aluminium, magnesium, boron, zinc, sodium, and lithium, can be used. They did have a considerable effect on the morale of the civilian population of the United Kingdom. The component parts of an IID will generally be an Incendiary Material, for example Petroleum; a means of ignition with possibly its own power source, like batteries; and a timer mechanism to control exactly when it ignites. The hope was that the two capitals would be engulfed in an inextinguishable blaze, causing the Allies to sue for peace. The first incendiary devices to be dropped during World War I fell on coastal towns in the south west of England on the night of 18–19 January 1915. 58+1 sentence examples: 1. The bomb was ignited by a thermite charge, but the main incendiary effect was from the magnesium and aluminium alloy casing, which ignited at 650° Celsius, burned at 1,100 Â°C and emitted vapour that burned at 1,800 Â°C. The United States has confirmed the use of Mark 77s in Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003. The Nazi regime began the campaign of incendiary bombings at the start of World War II with the bombing of Warsaw, and continued with the London Blitz and the bombing of Moscow, among other cities. Most people chose this as the best definition of incendiary: The definition of incendi... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Research by American Reinsurance. Arson; 3. Of or containing chemicals that produce intensely hot fire when exploded. Examples of incendiary in a sentence, how to use it. I am writing this on October 1, 2020. Some siege techniques—such as mining and boring—relied on combustibles and fire to complete the collapse of walls and structures. In World War II, incendiaries were principally developed in order to destroy the many small, decentralised war industries located (often intentionally) throughout vast tracts of city land in an effort to escape destruction by conventionally aimed high-explosive bombs. [11] All Rights Reserved. Probably the most famous incendiary attacks are the bombing of Dresden and the bombing of Tokyo on 10 March 1945. [1], After further experiments with 5-litre barrels of benzol, in 1918, the B-1E Elektron fire bomb (German: Elektronbrandbombe) was developed by scientists and engineers at the Griesheim-Elektron chemical works. The most deadly single bombing raid in history was Operation Meetinghouse, an incendiary attack that killed some 100,000 Tokyo residents in one night. On the other side … Diff… Local depletions of material in a container may occur due to its use in another application (such as an incendiary device) by the suspect, and thus taking a sample in the same place the sus­ It has been exactly ten days since the National Gallery of Art website posted a joint “Statement from the Directors” of the NGA, Boston MFA, Tate Modern and Houston MFA—the four venues where the long-awaited “Philip Guston Now” retrospective was to open this summer, announcing its delay until 2024. The definition of incendiary is something that is likely to cause controversy, or something that is prone to starting fires. (U//FOUO) Improvised incendiary devices (IIDs) typically are less expensive to make than improvised explosive devices but still are capable of creating mass casualties and causing widespread fear and panic. [2] The German High Command devised an operation called "The Fire Plan" (German: Der Feuerplan), which involved the use of the whole German heavy bomber fleet, flying in waves over London and Paris and dropping all the incendiary bombs that they could carry, until they were either all shot down or the crews were too exhausted to fly. If they do so at B, it will contain five horizons (1 to 5). In the Pacific War, during the last seven months of strategic bombing by B-29 Superfortresses in the air war against Japan, a change to firebombing tactics resulted in the death of 500,000 Japanese and the homelessness of five million more. A range of early thermal weapons were utilized by ancient and early armies, including hot pitch, oil, resin, animal fat and other similar compounds. Incendiary bombs were used extensively in World War II as an effective bombing weapon, often in a conjunction with high-explosive bombs. Incendiary Weapons. Many different configurations of incendiary bombs and a wide range of filling materials such as isobutyl methacrylate (IM) polymer, napalm, and similar jellied-petroleum formulas were used, many of them developed by the US Chemical Warfare Service. Incendiary devices have caused mill 14. Munitions designed to combine penetration, blast or fragmentation effects with an additional incendiary effect, such as armor-piercing projectiles, fragmentation shells, explosive bombs and similar combined-effects munitions in which the incendiary effect is not specifically designed to cause burn injury to persons, but to be used against military objectives, such as armoured vehicles, aircraft and installations or facilities. the sample will contain four horizons (1, 2, 3, and 5). Nevertheless, the civilian destruction caused by such weapons quickly earned them a reputation as terror weapons with the targeted populations. It takes very high temperatures to ignite, but when alight, it can burn through solid steel. Hand in hand with a timer is usually an incendiary device. A further advantage of the alloy casing was its lightness, being a quarter of the density of steel, which meant that each bomber could carry a considerable number. Many different configurations of incendiary bombs and a wide range of filling materials such as isobutyl methacrylate (IM) polymer, napalm, and similar jellied-petroleum formulas were used, many of them developed by the US Chemical Warfare Service. An incendiary bomb is used to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. When the Democrats, however, declared such language incendiary he tried to explain it away, and by so doing offended his friends without appeasing his opponents. Though colloquially often known as bombs, they are not explosives but in fact are designed to slow the process of chemical reactions and use ignition rather than detonation to start or maintain the reaction. "Incendiary Mixtures," Kirk's 1997, Chap 13 "Chemical Incendiaries," Kirk's 1997, Chap. Designs of incendiary munitions vary widely (as do their applications), so this technical overview will focus on the fundamental elements of their operations. Substances such as quicklime and sulfur could be toxic and blinding. [3] Thousands of Elektron bombs were stockpiled at forward bomber bases and the operation was scheduled for August and again in early September 1918, but on both occasions, the order to take off was countermanded at the last moment, perhaps because of the fear of Allied reprisals against German cities. The German Luftwaffe started the war using the 1918-designed one-kilogram magnesium alloy B-1E Elektronbrandbombe; later modifications included the addition of a small explosive charge intended to penetrate the roof of any building which it landed on. Napalm proper is no longer used by the United States, although the kerosene-fuelled Mark 77 MOD 5 Firebomb is currently in use. For example, a tall taper is set in the floor of a closet surrounded by newspapers. A variety of pyrophoric materials can also be used: Selec… Modern incendiary bombs usually contain thermite, made from aluminium and ferric oxide. 97 examples: In the first of these, 235 bombers dropped 280 tonnes of explosives and 40,000… Less successful was the Flammenbombe, a 250 kg or 500 kg high explosive bomb case filled with an inflammable oil mixture, which often failed to detonate and was withdrawn in January 1941.[9]. incendiary material means a flammable or combustible liquid, and includes gasoline, acetone, benzene, butane, jet fuel, fuel oil, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Articles in late 1944 claimed that the flame was so hot it could crumble a brick wall. Ignitable Liquid Classification System. Later, an extensive reprisal was enacted by the Allies in the strategic bombing campaign that led to the near-annihilation of many German cities. Modern incendiary bombs usually contain thermite, made from aluminium and ferric oxide. Napalm for example, is petroleum especially thickened with certain chemicals into a 'gel' to slow, but not stop, combustion, releasing energy over a longer time than an explosive device. Penal Code 18710 PC is the California statute that makes it a crime to possess a “destructive device.” This category includes bombs, grenades, explosive missiles, projectiles containing incendiary material, and certain types of rockets or rocket-propelled projectiles. See more. His team continued to clear the building and toss flares into corners as they sought out any living insurgents or incendiary devices. Around fifty-five million incendiary bombs were dropped on Germany by Avro Lancasters alone. (U//FOUO) Improvised incendiary devices (IIDs) can be constructed easily from everyday materials available at hardware and grocery stores. Incendiary Indicators, Management for Arson Prevention and Control. [15] Napalm however, became an intrinsic element of U.S. military action during the Vietnam War as forces made increasing use of it for its tactical and psychological effects. Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices, incendiary munitions, or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus. [13] Winston Churchill, among others, criticized American use of napalm in Korea, calling it "very cruel", as the US/UN forces, he said, were "splashing it all over the civilian population", "tortur[ing] great masses of people". "Fire Setting and Related Mechanisms," Criminal Investigation, Chap 20 Search incendiary material and thousands of other words in English definition and synonym dictionary from Reverso. The purposes of incendiaries are to cause maximum fire damage on flammable materials and objects and to illuminate. by Julia Friedman. In World War II, such devices were employed in incendiary grenades to burn through heavy armor plate, or as a quick welding mechanism to destroy artilleryand other complex machined weapons. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples An example of something described as incendiary is a controversial political topic like the death penalty. [8] For example, a large bomb casing was filled with small sticks of incendiary (bomblets); the casing was designed to open at altitude, scattering the bomblets in order to cover a wide area. For propaganda purposes the RAF dubbed the new incendiary bomb the Superflamer. (figuratively) One who excites or inflames factions into. Following the attack, the survivors were rushed to the base hospital with severe burns from the incendiary weapons. 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