By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Scipio was not able to prevent Hasdrubal from leading his depleted army over the western passes of the Pyrenees into Gaul. The First Punic War (264-241 BC) The First Punic War was a conflict between Rome and Carthage. [143] In 206 BC the Carthaginians ended this drain on their resources by dividing several Numidian kingdoms with him. In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls. From the founding of the Republic, the powerful Carthaginians had long supported Rome in its bid to secure its own independence and strength in Italy. The massed Carthaginian army, led by Hannibal, was defeated at Zama. An army was usually formed by combining a Roman legion with a similarly sized and equipped legion provided by their Latin allies; these legions usually had a larger attached complement of cavalry than Roman ones. Gaius Nero, commander of the southern Roman army, slipped away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the banks of the Metauros River. In response, Roman advisers were sent to train his soldiers and he waged war against the Carthaginian ally Gala. Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. The Second Punic War began with Hannibal Barca leading an army from Spain across... See full answer below. Nevertheless, its commercial enterprises expanded rapidly in the 2nd century bce, exciting the envy of Rome’s growing mercantile community. [147] In a carefully planned assault in 209 BC, he captured the lightly-defended centre of Carthaginian power in Iberia, New Carthage,[147][148] seizing a vast booty of gold, silver and siege artillery. [100], Paullus and Varro marched southward to confront Hannibal, and encamped 10 km (6 mi) away. In 211 BC Hannibal attempted to lure the Romans into a pitched battle, but was unsuccessful; and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". The Romans were still in their winter quarters. His surprise entry into the Italian peninsula led to the cancellation of Rome's planned campaign for the year: an invasion of Africa. The Second Punic War Ends (202-201 BC) In 202 BC, after the Battle of Zama, Hannibal met Scipio in a … Hannibal attacked Italy from the northern side and managed to win … By 214 BC the bulk of southern Italy had turned against Rome. During the long mainland campaign, fighting had continued as well on Sardinia and Sicily, which had become Rome’s chief sources of food. Mago marched his reinforced army towards the lands of Carthage's main Gallic allies in the Po Valley, but was checked by a large Roman army and defeated at the Battle of Insubria in 203 BC. The Second Punic War 218 -202 BC. [103], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. The Second Punic War (218–201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. [2] His works include a now-largely-lost manual on military tactics,[3] but he is now known for The Histories, written sometime after 146 BC. [128], Fabius was able to overrun the Carthaginian ally Arpi in 213 BC. [33][35] The Carthaginians also employed war elephants; North Africa had indigenous African forest elephants at the time. [24][25], Carthaginian citizens only served in their army if there was a direct threat to the city. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Second Punic War (218-201 BC) In 219 BC, Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum, a coastal city in northeast Hispania that enjoyed a long-standing treaty of friendship with Rome.In 226 BC, however, Hasdrubal the Fair signed a treaty with Rome that acknowledged Carthage's control of Hispania south of the Ebro River. Rome, exhausted by war, nevertheless raised and dispatched an army to check Hasdrubal. The Punic Wars refers to a series of war that took place between Carthage and the mighty Romans. This was a long war, beginning in 264 BC and not ending until 241 BC. What were the wars fought in Rome and Carthage? [125], Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. Hannibal accepted battle on the open plain between the armies in the Battle of Cannae. [18] Modern historians usually take into account the writings of various Roman annalists, some contemporary; the Greek Diodorus Siculus; and the later Roman historians, Plutarch, Appian and Dio Cassius. [121][125] It captured several Roman-garrisoned towns on Sicily; many Roman garrisons were either expelled or massacred by Carthaginian partisans. Timeline Of The Punic Wars. [85] Two armies – of four legions each, two Roman and two allied, but with stronger than usual cavalry contingents[86] – were formed. [90] Hannibal set an ambush[90] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[91] including Flaminius,[90] and taking 10,000 prisoner. The cause of Second Punic War Bust of Hannibal discovered in Capua. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. How long did the Second Punic War last? Moving to southern Italy in 216, Hannibal defeated the Romans again at the Battle of Cannae, where he annihilated the largest army the Romans had ever assembled. In 209 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, the main Carthaginian base in the peninsula. In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. [63] In 226 BC the Ebro Treaty was agreed with Rome, specifying the Ebro River as the northern boundary of the Carthaginian sphere of influence. Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. A Roman relief army broke through the siege, … These wars took place between 264 and 146 BC. The second Punic war took place between 218 and 201 BC. Rome demanded his withdrawal, but Carthage refused to recall him, and Rome declared war. … His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. [23] The balance were equipped as heavy infantry, with body armour, a large shield and short thrusting swords. how long did the second punic war last? Before the First Punic War, there was essentially … [91], The prisoners were badly treated if they were Romans; the Latin allies who were captured were well treated by the Carthaginians and many were freed and sent back to their cities, in the hope that they would speak well of Carthaginian martial prowess and of their treatment. [note 2][9][19] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions. [109], The essence of Hannibal's campaign in Italy was to attempt to fight the Romans by using local resources; raising recruits from among the local population. [152] Later the same year a mutiny broke out among Roman troops, which initially attracted support from Iberian leaders, disappointed that Roman forces had remained in the peninsula after the expulsion of the Carthaginians, but it was effectively put down by Scipio. The Second Punic War began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in 218 BCE. [110], The greatest gain was the second largest city of Italy, Capua, when Hannibal's army marched into Campania in 216 BC. [143] Hasdrubal now had no chance of reinforcing Hannibal in Italy. A brilliant defensive strategy conducted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle. [78] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. [54], The war lasted 23 years, ending in 241 BC with a Carthaginian defeat. [30] On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. [101] As a result, the Roman infantry was surrounded with no means of escape. Before the Second Punic War slaves were employed on a relatively small scale. He sailed for Africa in 204 and established a beachhead. Both wars ended with Roman victories; the Second when the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal , the premier Carthaginian general of the war, at the Battle of Zama , 160 … Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. From here, they established a trade network across the Mediterranean. All three wars were won by Rome, which subsequently emerged as the greatest military power in the Mediterranean Sea. [117] By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. hannibal barca. spain. In 211 BC the Romans took the offensive in Iberia and were decisively defeated, while maintaining their hold on the north east. The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's deliberately weak centre, but Libyan heavy infantry on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 7] was to be paid over 50 years. The Romans facing Hannibal in southern Italy tricked him into believing the whole Roman army was still in camp, while a large portion marched north and reinforced the Romans facing Hasdrubal. However, only part of the besieging force left for Rome and Capua fell soon afterwards. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power. They fir… Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. After seventeen years of warfare, and at a great loss of life on both sides, Rome defeated Cárthage and came out on top as the new superpower … Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long … [55][56], With the suppression of the rebellion, Hamilcar understood that Carthage needed to strengthen its economic and military base if it were to again confront Rome. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. After the Carthaginians failed to resupply the city, Syracuse fell in the autumn of 212 BC; Archimedes was killed by a Roman soldier. [101] The historian Richard Miles describes Cannae as "Rome's greatest military disaster". After he died, his son in law took over the army and territory he had gained and made a treaty with the Romans that established the limits for the Spanish Carthaginian … [155] Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. [87] Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. This meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated Treaty of Lutatius. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army was also engaged and wiped out. [61][62] Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. This new Carthaginian invasion was defeated at the Battle of the Metaurus. One was stationed at Arretium, and one on the Adriatic coast; they would be able to block Hannibal's possible advance into central Italy, and be well positioned to move north to operate in Cisalpine Gaul. [104][105] However, the majority of Rome's allies remained loyal, including many in southern Italy. This sealed the fate of the Carthaginians in Iberia. The account of the Roman historian Livy, who relied heavily on Polybius, is much used by modern historians where Polybius's account is not extant. It was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. The Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification and so vastly increasing the number of men they had under arms. [69], In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. [111] When the port city of Locri defected to Carthage in the summer of 215 BC it was immediately used to reinforce the Carthaginian forces in Italy with soldiers, supplies and war elephants. [173][174] It was a century before the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city. The war saw land battles in Sicily early on, but focus soon shifted to naval battles around Sicily and Africa. At that time these were considered to be the largest wars ever fought. Between 215 and 210 BC the Carthaginians attempted to capture Roman-held Sicily and Sardinia, but were unsuccessful. [75] At the Battle of Rhone Crossing, Hannibal defeated a force of local Allobroges which sought to bar his way. At the Battle of Ilipa in 206 Scipio permanently ended the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. [83], When news of the defeat reached Rome it initially caused panic. [134] This battle enabled another Roman army to approach Tarentum and capture it by treachery in the second Battle of Tarentum. Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. Roman troops tried to bar his advance but were outmatched, and Hannibal’s hold over northern Italy was established. In the spring of 212 BC the Romans stormed Syracuse in a surprise night assault and captured several districts of the city. [72] In Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy), the major Gallic tribes attacked the Roman colonies there, causing the Romans to flee to their previously-established colony of Mutina (modern Modena), where they were besieged. [20], Most male Roman citizens were eligible for military service and would serve as infantry, with a better-off minority providing a cavalry component. [163] Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones. Raising fresh troops to replace these delayed the army's departure for Iberia until September. [138] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. [88] Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. [30][44], Both states possessed large fleets throughout the war, but there were no large-scale naval clashes and Carthage never attempted to use its fleet decisively, effectively giving the Romans naval superiority for the course of the war. It started 52 years after the end of the second war. Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states. Reinforced by Gallic allies, he obtained crushing victories over the Romans at the battles of Trebia (218) and Lake Trasimene (217). In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians no one, hannibal retreated, but the Romans do respect Hannibal. It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. [83] The Senate had ordered the consul Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily, where it had been preparing for the invasion of Africa, to join the Roman army already facing Hannibal. Meanwhile, in Spain, Roman forces maintained pressure on Carthaginian strongholds. 23 years. [147][151] It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades, after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. The main source for almost every aspect of the Punic Wars[note 1] is the historian Polybius (c. 200 – c. 118 BC), a Greek sent to Rome in 167 BC as a hostage. In such circumstances it was difficult to force a battle if the other commander was unwilling to fight. Objective of the conflict: To expand the Carthaginian Empire through the Iberian Peninsula to Rome. Aided by internal upheaval in Syracuse, Carthage reestablished its presence on the island in 215 and maintained it until 210. [106] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. [118], During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal[119] – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC. [81], The Carthaginians captured the chief city of the hostile Taurini (in the area of modern Turin) and their army routed the cavalry and light infantry of the Romans at the Battle of Ticinus in late November. [59] Hamilcar took the army which he had led to victory in the Mercenary War to Iberia in 237 BC and carved out a quasi-monarchial, autonomous state in southern and eastern Iberia. However, in the war, they lost several army men and elephants. Date: Between 218 B.C., and 201 B.C. Thus, the two armies remained deadlocked on the Italian peninsula until 211 bce, when Rome recaptured the city of Capua. Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where the Carthaginian general Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. [4][5] Polybius's work is considered broadly objective and largely neutral as between Carthaginian and Roman points of view. [6][7] Polybius was an analytical historian and wherever possible personally interviewed participants, from both sides, in the events he wrote about. The Second Punic War Begins. [135], In 205 BC Publius Scipio was given command of the legions in Sicily and allowed to enrol volunteers for his plan to end the war by an invasion of Africa. https://www.britannica.com/event/Second-Punic-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Second Punic War. [50][51] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. Carthage had been found in the 8th century BC by Phoenicians on the coast of North Africa. [161] The Roman and allied Numidian cavalry drove the Carthaginian cavalry from the field. The Syracusan army proved no match for the Romans, and by spring 213 BC Syracuse was besieged. [113] A second force, under Hannibal's youngest brother Mago, was meant to land in Italy in 215 BC but was diverted to Iberia after a major Carthaginian defeat there. Hannibal destroys the Roman army at Cannae in the … The Third Punic War (149-146 BC) Rome was victorious after the Second Punic War. [133] Hannibal then fought the inconclusive Battle of Numistro, but the Romans stayed on his heels, fighting the also inconclusive Battle of Canusium in 209 BC. Advancing into the territory of some of Rome's new Spanish allies near Acra Leuce they defeated the local tribal forces. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack[70][71] and captured the island of Malta. [133], In 210 the Carthaginians caught the Romans off guard during their siege of Herdonia and lifted the siege after a pitched battle in which the Romans lost 13,000 men from their army of 20,000. Henceforth it was clear that Carthage was politically subordinate to Rome. [109] By early 215 BC they were fielding at least 12 legions; by 214 BC, 18; and by 213 BC, 22. The period is usually split into three distinct wars – the First Punic War was fought from 264–241 BC, the Second Punic War from 218–201 BC and the Third Punic War from 149–146 BC. [154] After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. What did Hannibal do in the spring of 218 BC? [74], Meanwhile, Hannibal assembled a Carthaginian army in New Carthage (modern Cartagena) and led it northwards along the Iberian coast in May or June. [149] In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control. [131][132] Despite these losses, the Romans besieged Capua, the Carthaginians' key ally in Italy. [157] The Roman Senate ratified a draft treaty, but due to mistrust and a surge in confidence when Hannibal arrived from Italy Carthage repudiated it. These included the large city of Capua and the major port city of Tarentum (modern Taranto). [122][123] Both Polybius' and Livy's accounts of the siege focus on Archimedes' invention of war machines to counteract Roman siege warfare, made more difficult by the strong defenses of the city. Hannibal ravaged Italy with impunity for 14 years, defeating every Roman army sent out to meet him. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. In which battles did Hannibal surpass the Romans in military flair, strategy, and daring? [87], In early spring 217 BC, the Carthaginians crossed the Apennines unopposed, taking a difficult but unguarded route. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Hannibal maintained his position in southern Italy until 203, when he was ordered to return to Africa. The Romans' lodgement between the Ebro and Pyrenees was now secure and it blocked the route from Iberia to Italy, preventing the despatch of reinforcements from Iberia to Hannibal. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Hannibal arrived with 20,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry, and an unknown number of elephants—the survivors of the 37 with which he left Iberia[79][80]—in Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy). 16 years. [108] Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. That year, Hannibal surprised the Romans by marching his army overland from Iberia, through Gaul and over the Alps to Cisalpine Gaul (modern northern Italy). It seemed as though the superiority of the Romans at sea would enable them to choose the field of battle....…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which...…. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Many senior Carthaginians wanted to reject it, but Hannibal spoke strongly in its favour and it was accepted in spring 201 BC. In 211 BC, Hannibal sent a force of Numidian cavalry to Sicily, which was led by the skilled Liby-Phoenician officer Mottones, who inflicted heavy losses on the Roman army through hit-and-run attacks. And besieged a pro-Roman town and offered battle at Ilipa in 206 BC the Romans do respect.. Destroyed his army in large numbers, bringing it up to 60,000.. For Africa in 204, compelling the Carthaginian cavalry from the field not be confused with the League. To reduce it its political power ] such Italian forces as were raised resisted away. The treaty between them and Hannibal ’ s hold over northern Italy with for! 124 ], Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with larger! 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